Taxonomic revision, phylogenetic analysis, and biogeography of diving beetles of the genus Exocelina Broun, 1886 in New Guinea

An example for the evolution of a hyperdiverse tropical island insect group

 

Project leader
 
Dr. Helena Shaverdo
 
Prolongation and Fond support
 
2005 – dato;
01.02.2012 –  31.01.2017: FWF, Einzelprojekt Nr. P 24312-B17

Abstract
 
The main project goal is to investigate the evolution of Exocelina in the complex geological and ecological environment of New Guinea. To fulfill this goal we 1) carry out a taxonomic revision of the genus, with descriptions of the new species; 2) test species limits based on morphological characters and molecular data; 3) analyze relationships within the genus based on morphological characters and on molecular data separately; 5) carry out combined phylogenetic analysis, based on morphological characters and molecular data, including biogeographical and ecological aspects.
The project is carried out at the Naturhistorisches Museum Wien and is planned as an international cooperation with Dr M. Balke, Zoologische Staatssammlung München.
We believe that our project is of great importance since it brings new data in two aspects. First, its results test/support several general theoretical and methodological hypotheses in biogeography, e.g. a long-distance dispersal might play a prominent role in the formation of the Southern hemisphere distributional patterns, and in systematics, e.g. a) success of an integrate approach for species delimitation; b) more than 100 species new to science are described. Here, the most innovative aspect is the creation of a cybertaxonomy infrastructure for scientific publications: descriptions, keys, and digital imaging linked to Wiki-online resources. The second aspect is important for the group: a) for the first time, phylogenetic analyses of Exocelina is performed based on morphological and molecular data, combined to the largest dataset for this region and invertebrates available to date, to reconstruct the biogeographical evolution of this group; b) a new supraspecific classification of Exocelina is proposed; c) first keys, illustrated with drawings and digital images, are created. Results of our project will have an implication not only for other biological disciplines (e.g. ecology, and nature inventory and conservation) but also for popularization of nature study and conservation and training of local people as parataxonomists.
 
Progress of the taxonomic work
 
New species are published: 67 spp.
Species described from NG: 104 spp.
Described species worldwide: 160 spp.
 
 
NSpecies groupNumber of speciesDistributionReference of group introduction, key to species, or species description
1aipomek1IN: Papua: Pegunungan BintangBalke (1998)
2aipo4IN: Papua: Pegunungan Bintang, YahukimoBalke (1998)
3ascendens2IN: Papua: Puncak Jaya, Puncak, Pegunungan BintangShaverdo et al. (2017)
4bacchusi5/6
(1 described)
PNG: Madang, Eastern Highlands, Morobe, Centralin work
5bagus1IN: West Papua: NabireBalke (1998, 2001); Shaverdo et al. (2017)
6broschii5PNG: Sandaun, Madang, Hela, Enga, Western and Eastern Highlands, Simbu, GulfShaverdo et al. (2005, 2016b)
7casuarina24
(5 described)
IN: West Papua: Nabire; Papua: Puncak, Jayapura, Pegunungan Bintang
PNG: Sandaun, Madang, Eastern Highlands, Simbu, East Sepik, Morobe
in work
8hajeki4 and 1 subspecies
(2 described)
IN: Papua: Jayawijaya, Pegunungan Bintang, Yahukimo,
PNG: Sandaun
 
in work
9danae15IN: West Papua: Teluk Wondama; Papua: Paniai, Intan Jaya, Puncak Jaya, Puncak, Pegunungan Bintang
PNG: Sandaun, Western, Madang, Enga, Western and Eastern Highlands, Simbu, Gulf, Morobe, Oro (Northern), Central, National Capital District
Shaverdo et al.  (2016d)
10 ekari51 (+15 new)IN: West Papua: Raja Ampat, Sorong, Manokwari, Fak-Fak, Kaimana, Teluk Wondama; Papua: Yapen Islands, Sarmi, Mamberamo Raya, Nabire, Paniai, Jayapura
PNG: Sandaun, East Sepik, Madang, Western, Hela, Enga, Southern, Western and Eastern Highlands, Simbu, Gulf, Morobe
Shaverdo et al. (2012, 2014, 2016a)
11 erteldi1IN: Papua: Pegunungan BintangBalke (1998)
12 ferruginea1 (baliem)IN: Papua: Pegunungan BintangShaverdo et al. (2013)
13 iratoi1IN: Papua: PuncakShaverdo et al. (2017)
14 jaseminae5
(1 described)
PNG: Morobe, Eastern Highlands, Central, Gulfin work
15 koroba1PNG: Southern Highlandsin work
16 larsoni5/6
(3 described)
IN: Papua: Pegunungan Bintang
PNG: Sandaun, Madang, Eastern Highlands, Simbu, Central, National Capital
in work
17 likui1IN: Papua: Puncak JayaShaverdo et al. (2017)
18 mekilensis1PNG: Sandaunin work
19 monae1/2
(1 described)
PNG: Morobe, Eastern Highlands, Gulfin work
20 morobensis1PNG: Morobein work
21 oh1PNG: Eastern Highlands, Simbuin work
22 pui1IN: Papua: PuncakShaverdo et al. (2017)
23 pulchella1PNG: Centralin work
24 ransikiensis1IN: West Papua: ManokwariShaverdo et al. (2016c)
25 ullrichi3PNG: Eastern Highlands, MorobeBalke (1998); Shaverdo & Balke (2014)
26 wigodukensis2IN: Papua: Puncak JayaShaverdo et al. (2017)
 
 
 
 
 
Publications
 
  1. Shaverdo, H.V., Sagata, K., & Balke, M. 2005. Five new species of the genus Papuadytes Balke, 1998 from New Guinea (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). – Aquatic Insects 27 (4): 269-280.
  2. Shaverdo, H.V., Surbakti, S., Hendrich, L. & Balke, M. 2012. Introduction of the Exocelina ekari-group with descriptions of 22 new species from New Guinea (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Copelatinae). – ZooKeys 250: 1–76. Doi: 10.3897/zookeys.250.3715. URL: https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.250.3715
  3. Shaverdo, H.V., Hendrich, L. & Balke, M. 2013. Exocelina baliem sp. n., the only known pond species of New Guinea Exocelina Broun, 1886 (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Copelatinae). – ZooKeys 304: 83–99. Doi: 10.3897/zookeys.304.4852. URL: https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.304.4852
  4. Shaverdo, H.V., Balke, M., Toussaint, E. 2013. Speciation of hyperdiverse taxa across the highly complex New Guinean terrane system: diving beetle genus Exocelina Broun [Talk], pp. 198. – In: Kroh et al. (eds.) Abstract volume. BioSyst.EU 2013. Global systematics! 18-22 February 2013. NOBIS Austria, Vienna, 276 p.
  5. Shaverdo, H.V. & Balke, M. 2014. Exocelina kinibeli sp.n. from Papua New Guinea, a new species of the E. ullrichi-group (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) – Koleopterologische Rundschau 84: 31–40.
  6. Shaverdo, H., Sagata, K., Panjaitan, R., Menufandu, H., and Balke, M. 2014. Description of 23 new species of the Exocelina ekari-group from New Guinea, with a key to all representatives of the group (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Copelatinae). – ZooKeys 468: 1–83. Doi: 10.3897/zookeys.468.8506. URL: https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.468.8506
  7. Toussaint, E.F.A., Hall, R., Monaghan, M.T., Sagata, K., Ibalim, S., Shaverdo, H.V., Vogler, A.P., Pons, J. & Balke, M. 2014. The towering orogeny of New Guinea as a trigger for arthropod megadiversity. – Nature Communications 1: 1–10 + 10 supplements, 5:4001. Doi:10.1038/ncomms5001. URL: http://www.nature.com/search?q=10.1038%2Fncomms5001
  8. Shaverdo, H., Balke, M., Toussaint, E.F.A. 2014. Exocelina diving beetles: large scale environmental change as a diver for lineage diversification across Melanesia [Talk], pp. 77. – In: Abstract volume. 8th Annual Meeting of NOBIS Austria, “Crossing Borders”, 28-29 November 2014, München. NOBIS Austria, Vienna, 40 p.
  9. Toussaint, E.F.A., Hendrich, L., Shaverdo, H. & Balke, M. 2015. Mosaic patterns of diversification dynamics following the colonization of Melanesian islands. – Scientific Reports 5: 16016. Doi: 10.1038/srep16016 (2015). URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/srep16016
  10. Shaverdo, H., Panjaitan, R., and Balke, M. 2016a. A new, widely distributed species of the Exocelina ekari-group from West Papua (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Copelatinae). – ZooKeys 554: 69–85. Doi: 10.3897/zookeys.554.6065. URL: https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.554.6065
  11. Shaverdo, H., Sagata, K. & Balke, M. 2016b. Description of two new species of the Exocelina broschii-group from Papua New Guinea, with revision and key to all representatives of this species group (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Copelatinae). – ZooKeys 577: 125–148. Doi: 10.3897/zookeys.577.7254. URL: https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.577.7254
  12. Shaverdo, H., Panjaitan, R. & Balke, M. 2016c. Exocelina ransikiensis sp. nov. from the Bird’s Head of New Guinea (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Copelatinae). Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae 56 (1): 103–108. URL: http://aemnp.eu/PDF/56_1/56_1_103.pdf
  13. Shaverdo, H., Sagata, K. & Balke, M. 2016d. Taxonomic revision of New Guinea diving beetles of the Exocelina danae group, with the description of ten new species (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Copelatinae). ZooKeys 619:  45–102. Doi: 10.3897/zookeys.619.9951. URL: https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.619.9951
  14. Shaverdo, H. and Balke, M., 2016e. 1949 Infrageneric structure of New Guinea Exocelina predaceous diving beetles. – In: Online abstracts of the XXV International Congress of Entomology (ICE), September 25–October 4, 2016, Orlando, Florida, USA. Doi: 10.1603/ICE.2016.94135. URL: file:///F:/ICE2016/Paper94135.html
  15. Shaverdo, H., Wild, M., Sumoked, B., & Balke, M. 2017. Six new species of the genus Exocelina Broun, 1886 from Wano Land, New Guinea (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Copelatinae). ZooKeys 665: 93–120. Doi: 10.3897/zookeys.665.11792. URL: https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.665.11792
 
Conferences
  1. June 7-11, 2012: Balfour-Brown Club’s meeting, Hermani, Gipuzkoa, Spain. Presentation: “Systematics, phylogeny, and biogeography of New Guinean Exocelina Broun, 1886”.
  2. February 18-22, 2013: the international conference „BioSyst.EU 2013. Global systematics!”, NOBIS Austria, Vienna, Austria. Presentation: “Speciation of hyperdiverse taxa across the highly complex New Guinean terrane system: diving beetle genus Exocelina Broun, 1886”.
  3. November 28-29, 2014: the 8th Annual Meeting of NOBIS Austria „Crossing boarders”, NOBIS Austria and Zoologische Staatssammlung München, Munich, Germany. Presentation: “Exocelina diving beetles: large scale environmental change as a driver for lineage diversification across Melanesia”.
  4. April 23 – May 12, 2015: Manokwari, West Papua, Indonesien. A field trip and workshop at the University of Manokwari. Lecture: “From vial to publication: how do we describe new species?” Presentation at the Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Entomological Department: “Results of my trip to the West Papua, 2015”.
  5. September 25 – October 4, 2016: the XXV International Congress of Entomology (ICE), Orlando, Florida, USA. Presentation: “Infrageneric structure of New Guinea Exocelina predaceous diving beetles”.
 
Cyber-resources
 
ReserchGate: https://www.researchgate.net/project/Predacious-diving-beetles-of-the-genus-Exocelina-in-New-Guinea
Wikispecies: http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Exocelina
Species-ID: http://species-id.net/wiki/Exocelina
Zoobank: http://zoobank.org/NomenclaturalActs/66F44F58-2AA5-472D-AAB9-75804EF4C8BC
Genbank: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/taxonomy/?term=Exocelia
 
 
: Exocelina mantembu Shaverdo et al., 2014
: Exocelina skalei Shaverdo et al., 2014
: Exocelina ksionseki Shaverdo et al., 2014
: Exocelina kainantuensis (Balke, 2001)
: Exocelina baliem Shaverdo et al., 2013
: Exocelina bagus (Balke, 1998)
: Exocelina anggiensis Shaverdo et al., 2012
: Distribution of the Exocelina ekari-group in New Guinea
: West-Papua, Arfak Mountains
: West-Papua, Arfak Mountains